Yag Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Jewelry
Yag Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Jewelry – “YAG” redirects here. For IATA airport codes, see Fort Frances Municipal Airport. For YMCA-sponsored programs, see YMCA materials for youth and government.
Colorless stone – inert to medium orange in long waves, weak orange to inert in short waves; blue and pink stones – inert; Yellowish gray stone – very strong yellowish also long and short wave phosphorescence. Greston – strong red in long waves, weak red in short waves
Yag Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Jewelry
) is a synthetic crystalline material from the garnet family. Cubic yttrium aluminum oxide phase, another example is YAlO.
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Unlike sapphire, it does not exhibit birefringence, making it an attractive material for high energy/high power laser systems. YAG laser damage levels range from 1.1 to 2.2 kJ/cm² (1064 nm, 10 ns).
YAG, like garnet and sapphire, is not used as a pure laser medium. However, YAG is commonly used as a host material in various solid-state lasers after being doped with appropriate ions.
Rare earth elements such as neodymium and erbium can be YAG doped with active laser ions to create Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers respectively. Cerium-doped YAG (Ce:YAG) is used as a phosphor and scintillator in cathode ray tubes and white light emitting diodes.
It has been used in jewelry as imitations of diamonds and other gemstones. The colored variants and their doping elements are:
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Gre (chrome), blue (cobalt), red (manganese), yellow (titanium), blue/pink/purple (neodymium, depending on light source), pink and orange. As a faceted gemstone, it is valued (as a synthetic) for properties such as clarity, durability, high refractive index and dispersion, and sometimes simulating the color-changing properties of the alexandrite. The critical angle of YAG is 33 degrees. YAG is cut like a natural garnet and polished with alumina or diamond (50,000 or 100,000 grit) in a regular polishing round. YAG has low heat resistance.
As a synthetic gemstone, YAG has many variations, trade names, and misnomers. Synonymous names include: Somerset, triamond, YAIG and yttrium garnet. Production for the gemstone trade has declined since the introduction of synthetic cubic zirconia. from 1995
Some demand exists as a synthetic garnet and for designs where the very high refractive index of cubic zirconia is undesirable.
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Neodymium-doped YAG (Nd:YAG) was developed in the early 1960s and the first functional Nd:YAG laser was invented in 1964. Neodymium-YAG is the most widely used active laser medium in solid-state lasers and is used in all areas. They range from low power continuous wave lasers to high power Q-switched (pulsed) lasers with power levels measured in kilowatts.
The thermal conductivity of Nd:YAG is higher than that of Nd:YVO4 crystal and its fluorescence lifetime is about twice as long as that of Nd:YVO4 crystal, but it is less efficient and less stable, requiring temperature control. more accurate temperature. The best absorption band of Nd:YAG for laser pumping is 807.5 nm with a width of 1 nm.
Most Nd:YAG lasers produce infrared light at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Light at this wavelength is somewhat hazardous to vision because it can be focused on the retina by the eyes of the eyes, but the light is invisible and does not cause the blink reflex. Nd:YAG lasers can be used with frequency-doubled or frequency-tripled crystals to produce gray light with a wavelength of 532 nm or ultraviolet light with a wavelength of 355 nm, respectively.
Concentrations of dopants in commonly used Nd:YAG crystals typically range between 0.5 and 1.4 mol%. Higher dopant concentrations are used in pulsed lasers. Low intensities are suitable for continuous wave lasers. Nd:YAG is a pinkish-purple color, and less doped rods are less intensely colored than more heavily doped rods. As the absorption spectrum is narrow, the color depends on the observed light.
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YAG (Nd:Cr:YAG or Nd/Cr:YAG) doped with neodymium and chromium has better absorption properties than Nd:YAG. Indeed, the energy is absorbed by the wide absorption band of Cr.
This material is proposed for use in solar pump lasers that could be part of a solar energy satellite system.
Erbium-doped YAG (Er:YAG) is an active laser medium that emits at 2940 nm. The absorption band suitable for pumping is wide and located between 600 and 800 nm, allowing efficient pumping of the flashlamp. The concentration of dopant used is high. About 50% of the yttrium atoms are replaced. The Er:YAG laser wavelength couples well to water and body fluids, making these lasers particularly useful for medical and medical applications. Used for the treatment of tooth enamel and plastic surgery. Er:YAG is used for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. The mechanical properties of Er:YAG are essentially the same as those of Nd:YAG. Er:YAG works at wavelengths where the ocular damage threshold is relatively high (since light is absorbed before reaching the retina), performs well at room temperature, and has high gradient efficiency. Er:YAG is pink.
Ytterbium-doped YAG (Yb:YAG) is an active laser medium that emits at 1030 nm and has a wide absorption band from 940 nm to 18 nm.
Yttrium Aluminium Garnet
It is one of the most useful carriers for diode-pumped high-power semiconductor lasers. The levels of dopants used varied from 0.2% to 30% of the yttrium atoms replaced. Yb:YAG has very low partial heating and very high gradient efficiency,
No excited state absorption or upconversion, high mechanical strength and high thermal conductivity. Yb:YAG can be pumped with reliable InGaAs laser diodes at 940 or 970 nm.
Yb:YAG can replace 1064nm Nd:YAG in high power applications, and the dual frequency 515nm version can replace 514nm argon lasers.
Neodymium-Cerium Doped Double YAG (Nd:Ce:YAG or Nd,Ce:YAG) is an active laser medium material very similar to Nd:YAG. The added cerium atoms absorb strongly in the ultraviolet region and transfer energy to the neodymium atoms, thereby increasing pumping efficiency. The result is lower thermal distortion and higher output power than Nd:YAG at the same level of pumping. The 1064nm laser wavelength is equivalent to Nd:YAG. This material is highly resistant to UV damage from pump sources and has a low laser emission threshold. Typically, 1.1-1.4% of the Y atoms are replaced by Nd and 0.05-0.1% by Ce.
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Holmium-Chromium-Thulium Triple Doped YAG (Ho:Cr:Tm:YAG or Ho,Cr,Tm:YAG) is a very effective active laser medium material. It emits a laser at 2080 nm and can be pumped either by a flash lamp or by a laser diode.
It is widely used in military, medicine and meteorology. It performs well at room temperature, has high gradient efficiency, and operates at wavelengths with a relatively high eye damage threshold. 785nm band of Wh, Tm diode pumped
The other major pump band is between 400 and 800 nm. The levels of dopants used were 0.35 at% Ho, 5.8 at% Tm and 1.5 at% Cr. The rod has a gray color imparted by chromium (III).
Thulium-doped YAG (Tm:YAG) is an active laser medium operating from 1930 to 2040 nm. Suitable for diode pumping. Dual-mode Tm:YAG lasers emit two frequencies separated by 1 GHz.
Yttrium Aluminium Garnet
Chromium(IV)-doped YAG (Cr:YAG) offers a large absorption cross section in the 0.9 to 1.2 micron spectral region, making it an attractive choice as a passive Q-switch for Nd-doped lasers. The resulting device is solid state, compact and inexpensive. Cr:YAG has a high damage threshold, good thermal conductivity, good chemical stability, UV resistance and easy processing. It replaces more traditional Q conversion materials such as lithium fluoride and organic dyes. Dopant levels used varied from 0.5 to 3 per mol. Cr:YAG can be used for passive Q switching of lasers operating in wavelengths from 1000 to 1200 nm, such as Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, Nd:YVO4 and Yb:YAG based lasers.
Cr:YAG can also be used alone as a laser gain medium to create a tunable laser whose power can be tuned between 1350 and 1550 nm. Cr:YAG lasers can produce ultrashort pulses (femtosecond range) pumped at 1064 nm by Nd:YAG lasers.
Cr:YAG has been demonstrated for nonlinear optical applications as a self-pumped supernatant mirror in an Nd:YAG “loop resonator”.
Dysprosium-doped YAG (Dy:YAG) is a temperature-sensitive phosphor used for temperature measurement. The phosphor is excited by a laser pulse and its temperature-dependent fluorescence is observed. Dy:YAG is sensitive in the range of 300 to 1700K.
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The phosphor can be applied directly to the measured or d surface of the optical fiber. It has also been studied as a single-phase white light-emitting phosphor in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes.
Terbium-doped YAG (Tb:YAG) is a phosphor used in cathode ray tubes. It emits a yellowish gray at 544 nm.
Cerium(III)-doped YAG (Ce:YAG or YAG:Ce) is a pure single crystal scintillator or phosphor with a wide range of applications. When exposed to blue or ultraviolet or X-rays, it emits yellow light.
In white light-emitting diodes, it is used as a coating on high-brightness blue InGaN diodes to convert some blue light to yellow, making them appear white together. This arrangement does not provide an ideal color. Output brightness decreases with increasing temperature, further altering the color output of the device.
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(yttrium phosphate-vanadate). It is also used as a phosphor in cathode ray tubes.
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