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Mfi Zero Sperm Count Success Stories
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Low Sperm Count And Preseed?
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Authors: Patience E. Castleton 1, 2, 3, Joshua C. Deluao 1, 2, 3, David J. Sharkey 2, 3 and Nicole O. McPherson 1, 2, 3, 4, *
Adelaide School of Health and Medicine, School of Biomedicine, Reproductive and Developmental Disciplines, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
Received: January 13, 2022 / Revised: January 24, 2022 / Accepted: January 25, 2022 / Published: January 28, 2022
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High levels of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in semen and sperm may contribute to up to 80% of the diagnosis of male infertility, sperm ROS concentrations are important during fertilization and development of a healthy embryo and child. Evaluation of ROS in semen appears promising as a diagnostic tool for male infertility and male preconception care, with several tests clinically available in the market (MIOXSYS, Luminol chemiluminescence and OxySperm). Although some of these tests show promise for clinical use, inconsistencies in documented decision limits and the lack of cohort studies/clinical trials evaluating their benefits in fertilization rates, fetal development, pregnancy and birth rates limit their current clinical use. limits utility. In this review, we provide an update on the current techniques used to clinically analyze ROS concentrations in semen, with a view to using ROS research tools to improve the clinical detection of ROS in sperm. ability, and describe why we believe we are far behind Semen. ROS concentrations may become the main preconception diagnostic test among men.
Infertility cases are increasing worldwide, affecting an estimated 48.5 million couples each year . Of these couples, approximately 30% of infertility diagnoses are attributable to a male factor alone, and male infertility accounts for up to 50% of all cases . There is a growing demand for men to be actively involved in prenatal care  However, despite their equal role in conception, there is currently a disparity in prenatal care and testing available to men. One of the biggest limitations of male preconception testing is that the current standard clinical diagnosis of male infertility with sperm count, motility, and morphology, although they show useful information for the initial evaluation of male infertility, does not determine fertility. There is no direct test of 4]. Importantly, in patients with normal (normospermic) sperm parameters, these sperm parameters do not predict pregnancy after assisted reproductive treatment (ART) . Furthermore, recent studies have argued that the lack of standardization of routine semen analysis across clinics, often without adequate quality control measures, may limit the accuracy of test interpretations . This can lead to a long, stressful and costly process for diagnosing male infertility/subinfertility, which further reduces men’s ability to undergo fertility testing .
Oxidative stress and high levels of seminal oxygen species and reactive spermatozoa (ROS) have been reported as contributing factors to up to 80% of all infertility  , a healthy concept and with important implications for the development of offspring seen in animals. with. model . This underlines its usefulness not only in the diagnosis of male fertility/infertility, but also as a predictor of a couple’s chances of conceiving and having a healthy child. Although assessment of ROS concentrations in semen shows promise as a potential diagnostic tool, no current main guidelines have been established to inform which individuals should be tested or which of the various tests  should be done. Although we note that proposed guidelines for the management of male oxidative stress in idiopathic male infertility  have been published.
Furthermore, the common reference ranges (or the newly introduced “decision limits”) for semen ROS concentrations are conflicting (see Table 1). Consequently, the recently updated (2021) 6th edition of the WHO Laboratory Manual for the Analysis and Processing of Human Semen suggests that the clinical predicative value of ROS should still be interpreted with caution . These limitations have largely contributed to limit the clinical use of ROS measurement in the clinical laboratory. In this review, we provide an update on current techniques used to clinically analyze semen ROS concentrations, the potential for using ROS research tools to improve the clinical detection of ROS in sperm, and describe Let’s talk about why we are ahead of semen ROS concentrations. Be the leading men’s health test.
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Reactive oxygen species are molecules that contain a free electron or oxygen with an unstable bond and these characteristics allow the molecules to react with nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Excessive ROS production is implicated in aging and the development of many chronic and degenerative diseases including cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s Parkinson’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinocerebellar ataxia, ischemic stroke) and inflammation. intestinal disease [13, 14, 15]. Several forms of ROS are found in sperm, including superoxide (O
) all have different biological targets, which have their own spectrum of reactivity [16, 17]. ROS generation in sperm and seminal plasma can occur (i) as a by-product of aerobic metabolism and ATP production in sperm mitochondria and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) pathway in the sperm plasma membrane or (ii) from external sources such as Elevated seminal plasma leukocytes in response to conditions such as genital tract infection or inflammation, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, radiation exposure, genital heat stress, and obesity [18, 19, 20] (Figure 1). Biological concentrations of ROS must be present in sperm for normal physiological processes such as capacitation, hyperactivation and acrosome reaction to occur for successful sperm fertilization. ROS facilitate potentiation by activating adenylyl cyclase, which then acts to convert ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP). A downstream effect of cAMP is phosphorylation of proteins required for hyperactivation, which is supported by ROS inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases [17, 21, 22]. ROS is also required for the acrosome reaction and fusion of gametes, as it oxidizes and expels cholesterol from the membrane, increasing its fluidity . However, at either end of the spectrum (too low or too high) sperm ROS concentration can be harmful.
At low levels, ROS inhibit sperm motility through reduced adenylyl cyclase activation, whereas at high levels, ROS induce sperm lipid peroxidation and DNA damage . Spermatozoa are susceptible to ROS damage due to the lack of cytoplasmic enzymes susceptible to it and the high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in the plasma membrane, which reduces their ability to repair ROS-related damage . Sperm fatty acids have relatively unstable bonds in the membrane that can be easily oxidized by ROS to generate lipid radicals that react with surrounding fatty acids to generate lipid peroxidase [25, 26]. Degradation of the spermatic membranes, especially in the middle portion, leads to decreased sperm motility, which is a hallmark of male infertility . ROS-related sperm DNA damage occurs through the oxidation of guanine to 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Sperm can repair this base excision using base repair mechanisms, but they only have half of the necessary machinery, half of which is in the oocyte.
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