What Are The Pros And Cons Of Affirmative Action
What Are The Pros And Cons Of Affirmative Action – Affirmative action is a policy in which priority is given to those who were previously disadvantaged by discrimination. It appeared as an antidote to discrimination and then became a problem in itself, according to some theorists who oppose it. Advocates believe that affirmative action should be taken to ensure equal employment opportunities, but the facts show that this is not the case. Affirmative action is a highly controversial issue that has been debated for over thirty years. Unlike discrimination, there aren’t as many laws against affirmative action, but opponents are really working to ban it wherever they can.
Affirmative action is usually defined as an active effort to improve employment or educational opportunities for members of minority groups and women, or to promote the rights or advancement of other disadvantaged individuals.
What Are The Pros And Cons Of Affirmative Action
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What Happens If The Supreme Court Guts Affirmative Action?
In practice, affirmative action is undertaken by giving priority to women and persons from minority groups. For example, a company has an opening for an accountant. When determining who will be hired, the company gives priority to women and members of minority groups. This could also happen with promotion: only women and members of a minority group are likely to be promoted, as well as with education: women and members of a minority group are more likely to receive grants and scholarships that would allow them to attend college.
Another way to illustrate how affirmative action is taken would be in a classroom where some students receive many unfair punishments. One day, the teacher was informed that she would be fired if the unfair practices were not stopped. In an attempt to correct previous unacceptable behavior, the teacher begins to treat these students with some kind of preference. In the beginning, it will certainly be adequate because those students will have to feel that they are no longer being bullied.
Affirmative action is believed to have emerged as a remedy for the horrific discrimination that was unfortunately occurring. In fact, according to T.H. Anderson, (2004) In 1940, discrimination was a tradition, and in some states even a law. As sad as it may seem to us now, the most educated and refined African American did not have the rights of the most illiterate and rude white individual (p. 2). Therefore, when discrimination became illegal in the United States, affirmative action began to be implemented.
Pros And Cons: Complete Debates. Important Questions Fully Discussed In The Affirmative And The Negative By A.h. Craig: Fine Hardcover (1897) Presumed 1st.
By the mid-1970s, minorities and women were winning significant victories that could be seen on construction sites, exemplified by the Washington subway. Mayor Walter E. Washington took a dramatic step by establishing a powerful affirmative action program that would require all private companies that do business or contract with City Hall to submit plans with goals for progressive minorities and women. (J.H. Anderson, 2004, p. 142)
A valid affirmative action plan is one way to try to reverse the effects of past unlawful discrimination. Under such a plan, an employer makes employment decisions based on race or gender that cannot ordinarily be considered in order to restore equal employment opportunities to groups that have experienced discrimination.
When the court determines that the company has discriminated and that there are no other effective means to eliminate discrimination, the court can require the company to take affirmative measures. For example, a court can order a company to hire one African-American for every two white employees until the company’s workforce resembles the racial mix of the community. (F.S. Steinhold, 2007, p. 156)
A company may also be required to establish an affirmative action plan as part of a voluntary litigation settlement or E.E.O.C. proceeding. (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission). Any voluntary program must comply with the E.E.O.C. guidelines. regarding affirmative action plans. (F.S. Steinhold, 2007, p. 156)
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Affirmative Action In The Workplace
Since the originally valid affirmative action plans seem to have been somehow corrupted or misused, there have been some opponents. Affirmative action is a topic that has been discussed and analyzed by philosophers, lawyers, social scientists, politicians, journalists, editors and ordinary citizens for three decades.
Basically, the debate has two sides: the right and the left. The law, which is completely against him, says that affirmative action makes people get what they want not because they deserve it, but because they belong to a group that has been discriminated against in the past. According to this site, affirmative action is not meritocratic, leads to reverse discrimination, and is an un-American guarantee of equal results instead of equal opportunity. The left, which supports it, says that affirmative action is compensation for past injustices and a guarantee of a fair share of the economic pie. (J.D. Skrentny, 1996, pp. 1 and 2)
To reconcile these two points of view, one could say that an affirmative action plan might be appropriate at the beginning of the non-discriminatory time period; women and people from minority groups should feel that they are no longer discriminated against. On the other hand, there is no reason for this period of time to last forever. For example, in the United States, discrimination has long been made illegal, so people who have been discriminated against in the past should not be given any priority because of what happened in the distant past.
When it became necessary to take affirmative action during the turbulent period from 1964 to 1971, a careful analysis of the cultural and historical circumstances became absolutely necessary in its debate, and an explanation of why this happened was also necessary. (Claiton & Crosby, 1992, p. 2) Today, more than thirty years after this time, affirmative action would simply go against logic and as a result no explanation could be given.
Drainage Pros And Cons
Affirmative action is considered one of the most controversial policies in the United States. “The issues are complex, they evoke strong feelings, and in the media everyone seems to have an opinion on the subject (Claiton & Crosby, 1992, p. 1). This means that a lot of understanding is required.
The complexity of affirmative action as a subject is illustrated by the controversy over whether the 1991 version of the Civil Rights Act required or prohibited quotas—the faith of George W. Bush versus his supporters—the appointment of Clarence Thomas—an affirmative action beneficiary who surprisingly opposed it—and the apparent change of Supreme court. (SD Clayton & F.J. VanDeVeer, 2000, p. 4)
Opponents of affirmative action are believed to come from several quarters: Supreme Court Justice Thomas – an African-American who opposes it – Thomas Sowell, Shelby Steele and Glenn Lowry – African-American critics who have gained national attention by talking about politics – and Stephen Carter – William Nelson Cromwell, professor of law at Yale University. Their reactions to affirmative action seem very intriguing. (SD Clayton & F.J. VanDeVeer, 2000, p. 4)
Why the people who benefit from affirmative action oppose it deserves the astonishment of anyone who actually finds out. Perhaps it could be interpreted that they want to be equal – no better, no worse. The fact that they are now being given more rights because they were once denied the ones they should have had in the first place is likely to make them feel inferior. In other words, their equality should be enforced and they should receive only what they rightfully deserve, regardless of origin.
Prop 16: California’s Referendum On Affirmative Action
Affirmative action has become a major issue in state courts in California and Pennsylvania, where it has indeed been argued that its almost inevitable effect is reverse discrimination.
In general, membership in a minority group is due to birth or inheritance, such as women, African Americans, and people of different origins. On the other hand, there are some groups of people who have deliberately joined a minority group. For example, many people learned one religion at home and later converted to another. Homosexuality and bisexuality are debatable: some theorists believe that unusual sexual orientations are in the genes, while others believe that they are a matter of choice. Regardless of which theorists are right, homosexuals and bisexuals have been victims of discrimination in the past and later became beneficiaries of affirmative action.
As we all know, African Americans are practically the worst victims of discrimination. Without any rights, people were taken from Africa and brought to America to be sold as slaves. The terrible slavery was abolished a few hundred years later, but African Americans still could not achieve what the common man usually could. In the mid-20th century, discrimination against African Americans became illegal, and the law began to demand full equality, and affirmative action was taken as a remedy.
Before we focus on whether affirmative action should be adopted to ensure equal employment opportunities, we must
The Perpetual Reign Of Racial Preferences –
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